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Untitled by Gustave Zander

Untitled by Gustave Zander


A Swedish physician, Gustav Zander (1835-1920) helped pioneer “mechanotherapy,” or the promotion of health and healing through the use of exercise apparatus. At a time when belief in noxious humor still existed, Zander’s idea to promote health with resistance training using specialized machinery was revolutionary. While some of the machines pictured in this series resemble instruments of torture, each shows how it targeted different parts of the body—much like the mechanized trainers in a modern-day gym.



  • Series title: Medico-Mechanical Gymnastics by Gustave Zander
  • Series size: 12 artworks
  • Edition: Limited edition of 1000
  • Proof of Ownership: Certification on the Ethereum blockchain under the ERC1155 protocol. Each artwork is delivered privately and directly to collectors as non-fungible tokens (NFTs) that guarrante proof of ownership.
  • Format: Pieces consist of PNG files sized 2160x3840 pixels - 150 dpi.
  • Medium: Photography
  • Artwork materials:  Photographic paper
  • Contract Address: 0x495f947276749ce646f68ac8c248420045cb7b5e
  • ID: 2749212597480566...



The innovative and enterprising Zander was a follower of countryman Pehr Henrik Ling, inventor of calisthenics, or exercises performed with minimal equipment. Zander added the equipment, inventing a wide range of mechanical outlets for exertion. But because the weight and tension could be targeted and regulated, his genius was to see how machines offered therapeutic exercise to those with injuries, deformities, and those just not in good enough shape for calisthenics. Zander’s success took off when he won a gold medal at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia for his exercise machines. Before long, he opened Zander Institutes around the world. For the first time, exercise was seen as a personal choice, not something required by economic necessity. Naturally this appealed to the elite, who made sure to wear the very latest in athlet